On the divisive issue of the Ukraine war, the G20 New Delhi Leaders Declaration has called for all states to uphold the principles of international law, including territorial integrity and sovereignty, international humanitarian law, and the multilateral system that safeguards peace and stability.
Without directly blaming Russia for the war, as demanded by the United States and Western European nations, the declaration highlighted the human suffering and additional negative impacts of the war in Ukraine on global food and energy security, supply chains, macro-financial stability, inflation and growth.
It stated this has complicated the policy environment for countries, particularly developing and least developed nations still recovering from the Covid-19 pandemic.
The declaration also quoted Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s earlier statement to Russian President Vladimir Putin, ‘Today’s era must not be of war.’
This peace has to “uphold all the Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter for the promotion of peaceful, friendly, and good neighbourly relations among nations in the spirit of ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future’,” it stressed.
“We also expressed deep concern about the adverse impact that conflicts have on the security of civilians, thereby exacerbating existing socio-economic vulnerabilities and hindering an effective humanitarian response,” the declaration said.
Emphasising the importance of sustaining food and energy security, it also called for the cessation of military destruction or other attacks on relevant infrastructure.
Recognising that while the G20 is not the platform to resolve geopolitical and security issues, the nations acknowledged these issues can have significant consequences for the global economy.
Different views remain
It also highlighted that there were differing views and assessments of the situation. “We are being transparent. It was right to record what was the reality in the meeting room, and that is what we have sought to say,” Jaishankar stated on this matter.
On reaching a consensus on the Ukraine issue, India collaborated with Brazil, Indonesia, and South Africa, along with other emerging market economies, G20 sherpa Amitabh Kant said.
The declaration also urged the full, timely and effective implementation of the Initiative on the Safe Transportation of Grain and Foodstuffs from Ukrainian Ports, commonly known as the Black Sea Grain Initiative. This initiative aims to ensure the immediate and unimpeded delivery of grain, foodstuffs, and fertilisers/inputs from Russia and Ukraine.
“The initiative is necessary to meet the demand in developing and least developed countries, particularly those in Africa,” the declaration said.
The declaration also appreciated the efforts of Turkey and the UN-brokered Istanbul Agreements, comprising the Memorandum of Understanding between the Russian Federation and the United Nations to promote Russian food products and fertilisers to world markets.
“We also expressed deep concern about the adverse impact that conflicts have on the security of civilians, thereby exacerbating existing socio-economic vulnerabilities and hindering an effective humanitarian response,” the declaration reiterated.